Thursday, September 3, 2020

Conflict in Ireland essays

Strife in Ireland papers Strife in Ireland. 1.)There are two principle bunches in Ireland, these being Republicans and Unionists. Republicans need Ireland to be liberated from British standard and for Ireland to be joined inside itself and have no associations with Britain. Unionists bolster the association of Great Britain and Ireland and like it to remain as such. Republicans accept that the contention began path back throughout the entire existence of Ireland. Eyewitnesses accept that since Ireland has had a background marked by strife at that point struggle is unavoidable. The manner by which individuals associated with the contention use history can take care of the perspectives on individuals of the current day who are re-taking on conflicts of the past. In any case, the perspectives on certain students of history is that the issue isn't history itself however the manner in which individuals use history. There is a significant distinction between what really occurred and how it is deciphered, and especially the fantasies which create from it. Another distinction between the Republicans and Unionists bunches is the point at which the Anglo-Irish bargain of 1922 was discharged, this brought about an unpleasant war when the British government apportioned Ireland and made Northern Ireland it caused debate. Most Unionists didn't need parcel, they needed the entire of the nation (counting the nations made into Northern Ireland) to be autonomous of Britain. There was destined to be a war between Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith against different Nationalists who thought the segment was an unsatisfactory trade off. They didn't need Britain to help Ireland now on the grounds that in the potato starvation of 1845-51 Britain wouldn't help by any stretch of the imagination. 2.)The Easter Rising of 1916 is significant in forming the perspectives on Republicans, Unionists, Protestants and Catholics. It started in the spring of 1916-The IRB were worried that the issue of Irelands opportunity was being overlooked in light of the First World War. They believed that lone equipped act ... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Comapring Naivete and Satire in Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels and

Naivete and Satire in Jonathan Swifts' Gulliver's Travels and Voltaire's Candide   A kid can make the most basic and target perception on society and the conduct of man. How is this conceivable? A youngster presently can't seem to develop and needs appropriate instruction and experience. In any case, it is for this very explanation that a kid would make the ideal social researcher; their naivete may give an amazing methods for target analysis and regularly parody. A kid's interested nature and yearn for information would realize a fair-minded addressing of social structures, short the programming of these very organizations, and their defenselessness would uncover any cultural threats present. This kid like researcher would consider the to be for what it's worth.  This equivalent reason might be applied to artistic works. An innocent character or storyteller might be utilized as a kid like researcher, who uncovers social certainties to the crowd through their naivete. As Maurois has noted, recorded as a hard copy about Candide, by Voltaire, It was novel of apprenticeship, that is, the molding of a pre-adult's thoughts by impolite contact with the universe (101). Jonathan Swift additionally adopts this strategy in his work Gulliver's Travels, where Gulliver, the primary character, gives a guileless perspective.  The parodies Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Swift, and Candide, by Voltaire, both utilize naivete to pass on humorous assaults on society. In the two works, litotes [understatements] are made of very silly circumstances, which further lights up the silly idea of a circumstance. Characters in every novel are made powerless by their excessively confiding in natures. This is exploited, and these characters are left e... ... Thoughts. New York: D Appleton and Company, 1929. * Prologue to Gulliver's Travels. Norton Anthology of English Literature, The Major Authors. Ed. M.H. Abrhams et al. 6th ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1995. * Lawler, John. The Evolution of Gulliver's Character. Norton Critical Editions. * Maurois, Andre'. Voltaire. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1932. * Mylne, Vivienne. The Eighteenth-Century French Novel. Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1965. * Pasco, Allan H. Novel Configurations A Study of French Fiction. Birmingham: Summa Publications, 1987. * Quintana, Ricardo Circumstance as Satirical Method. Norton Critical Editions: Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels. Ed. Robert A Greenberg. New York: W. W. Norton and Company Inc., 1961. * Van Doren, Carl. Quick .New York: The Viking Press, 1930. Â

Friday, August 21, 2020

Information Systems Business Professionals

Question: Examine about the Information Systems for Business Professionals. Answer: Presentation The data framework is the sorted out procedure of assortment of the different procedure parameter identified with the undertaking. The procedure data is crucial for keeping up a business and can both make and blemish a framework. In this manner the data framework helps in assortment stockpiling, correspondence, and association of imperative data about the framework. So the data framework helps in assortment of the data filtration of the data dependent on the prerequisites, preparing the data dependent on the need lastly creation and the dissemination of the procedure information. On account of the AIT, the few data about the understudies and the staffs, are the data of concern. Additionally, the organization has branches in different urban communities in this way making the framework circulated, the IS which helps the different parts of better information the board ought to be introduced at the office of the organization for sharing the information identified with the organization. A site ought to likewise be made to enroll the potential understudies and an entry to get to the accessible data for the staffs. This report expects to comprehend the different writing accessible with respect to comparable tasks for the simplicity of usage of the undertaking effectively in the office. For the fruitful execution of the task and better knowledge into the issues and the arrangement clarified catalog has been introduced, which contains six references. The audit has been isolated into two passages; the underlying segment contains the synopsis of the writing that has been chosen and the subsequent sections relate the chose article with the current issue. It has been relevantly introduced in the book that numerous frameworks don't perceive the need of the data framework in the association. Without the IT framework the administration of the errands and the data turns out to be amazingly troublesome. As per the creators, the web nearness makes a great deal of effect on the matter of an association; the nonappearance of a site lessens the trust in the computerized time and infers that the partners are not genuine about the customers. Additionally, the nonattendance of the data framework at an office makes the information inclined to human blunders which can influence the name and popularity of the association. Likewise, the nonattendance of IS makes the information the board troublesome as the paper-based framework can't be gotten to without breaking a sweat that is given by the robotized framework. As has been expressed for the situation study similar issues are looked by AIT. The manual framework at the office has negatively affected the chiefs of the association. The assignment of keeping up the data about the understudies and the staffs at the different focuses has negatively affected the administrators; likewise the nonattendance of the web nearness of the framework has influenced the business. So the issues that must be handled arranged by the need are: maintaining a strategic distance from the duplication of the data, wellbeing, and security of the information, sharing of information over the different offices and a framework for selecting understudies over the web. The creators of the paper talk about the cutting edge pattern of the general public which has helped in expanding the information on the general public. The creators additionally present the need of the data framework in the cutting edge period which won't just assistance the mentors yet will likewise improve the learning of the understudies. So from the paper, we comprehend that the customary framework has different issues that can be viably checked with the assistance of the data framework. The IS in AIT office will make the association world class in regards to the instructive administrations furnished to the understudies with the assistance of the online administrations. The prerequisites of AIT are comparable; the organization is for the most part customary and paid significance to the paper-based framework. The usage of the IS in the office won't just assistance in better administration of the data of the different procedure partners however will likewise help in the making of trust in the framework. The web nearness of the association will make a bigger meeting room which will help in the formation of better business for the organization and will likewise be the base for improving the understudy understanding through online material and the data framework with respect to the procedure. MIS or Management Information System, as has been depicted by the creator is the PC based framework that offers different apparatuses for viably sorting out the different parts of the task. MIS is critical as it enables the supervisors to take better data dependent on the apparatuses like administration, data, and the general information on the framework. The dynamic procedure contains the three stages, knowledge through the accessibility of the data, structure through a superior comprehension of the framework lastly the decision which is taken with the assistance of the accessible other options. So the MIS in this way helps in better administration of the assets of the association which is very much dissipated in the geological guide. It tends to be seen from the contextual investigation that AIT is all around dispersed because of the nearness of the chain in the different urban areas. The MIS will permit the information to be caught in the PC which can be shared effectively with the assistance of web. The best recommendation for the association is actualizing cloud based MIS which will permit the couple to check the ongoing status of the framework. With the assistance of the cloud based MIS the updates will be done on a solitary framework which can be effectively altered on a PC or even cell phones hence making the framework amazingly adaptable. The excess of the MIS framework is high which will permit consolidation of additional focuses that will be open at different places subsequently making is a one-stop game plan for each need of the business. Accordingly MIS will viably diminish the unpredictability of information the board. In this paper, the writer has introduced the different difficulties that are looked by the administrator for the administration of the data of the framework, which has gotten far reaching with the appearance of the innovation. Thus as an answer for the administration of the conveyed information sources, creator have proposed the utilization of the systems administration methods like the web, intranet, and extranet. The different systems that have been portrayed here can be adequately utilized for facilitating the data move. In the past area too the cloud administrations have been examined for usage of the concentrated programming which can be gotten to with the assistance of web. The understudy with the assistance of web can get to the information about AIT and register on the website, which wont require the physical nearness of the understudy for the fundamental work. The staffs can without much of a stretch access the data shared by the understudies with the assistance of web and can refresh the framework on the cloud, so it tends to be seen that the execution of the systems administration procedure will improve the experience of both the understudies and the staffs of the association and will help in better cooperation. The creator expresses that the methodologies that are received for viably countering the adjustments in the framework that may be experienced in future with the assistance of the current devices are known as the change the executives. So the change the executives manages chance and the possibility investigation of the current framework and arranging the updates of the framework dependent on the consequence of the examination. Subsequently it is obligatory that the framework examination is done to guarantee the life span of the update. For making the most out of the framework, the staffs of the association ought to be all around prepared or the enrollment ought to be made likewise. AIT is a little association and has just three communities which can be effortlessly dealt with the utilization of the web and PCs. Be that as it may, it very well may be effectively seen that the association has quite recently begun the excursion and has far to cover, which implies that more places will be opened at different locales which will be isolated by more prominent separations. Remembering all the elements the cloud administrations have just been recommended. So for the preparation of the staffs of the association in regards to the utilization of the framework, intuitive meetings with the usage group can be directed which will help in evaluating the framework and will guarantee that the staffs of the association are made very much aware of the approaches to deal with the new framework. The ongoing improvement in the region of the registering cloud administrations have brought about a disentanglement of human life yet have likewise acquainted different dangers with the individuals utilizing the administrations. As indicated by the creators, a great deal of unchartered dangers have been set up because of the selection of the data framework and the cloud administrations. Subsequently the paper examines two parts of the data framework which are the moral issues and the security issues. The moral issues are the essential one as a moral individual will never be an explanation of security burglary, in spite of the fact that errors do make a great deal of furor for the framework. So AIT ought to make mindfulness among the representatives of the association. The moral dangers could be staffs could utilize the individual data of the understudies and submit character extortion; the understudies may use their specialized aptitudes to abuse escape clauses of the framework. The security gives that may emerge for the framework are infusion assaults, hacking, and utilization of different noxious procedure or devices against the association. Consequently it is exceptionally proposed that the security of the framework ought to be given the preeminent need and the execution of the cloud ought to be finished by top notch SLAs. References: Ward, J. what's more, Peppard, J., 2016.The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley Sons. fourth, version. pp.2-25 Shanmugam, K.R., Srinivas, K. what's more, Reddy, K.S., 2014, December. data and correspondence innovation (ICT) in Education: Adcantages, DISADVANTAGES, Convenie

Saturday, June 6, 2020

An Interesting College Ranking

An Interesting College Ranking September 12 Were not so sure that Ben Franklin would be all that pleased that Penn recently topped one particular college ranking. We came across an interesting college ranking. Its the ranking of top party schools, as reported by Business Insider. It should be noted that the ranking, however, was conducted byPlayboy Magazine. Yes, youve read that correctly. While it should come as no surprise that certain universities near the top of the ranking, this years #1 ranked party school came as a surprise to us. Because who knew that the University of Pennsylvania  throws such big parties? At least according to the source. According to an article on this college ranking  in Business Insider, The Ivy League  school tops Playboys ninth annual list of party schools, its first appearance in the ranking. Last years number one school,  West Virginia University, fell to number three on Playboys list. Smarties can party too, and UPenn puts other Ivies to shame with its union of brains, brewskies and bros, Playboy writes. Boasting a notorious underground frat scene that school officials have deemed a nuisance, these renegades pony up thousands of dollars’ worth of liquor for their parties—and competition among the houses means a balls-out war of debauchery.' This may not be a ranking that administrators at the University of Pennsylvania are too fond of bragging about! If youre curious about which other universities appear on this ranking, #10 is Syracuse University, #9 is University of Texas, #8 is Colorado State University, #7 is University of Miami (shocker!), #6 is University of California Santa Cruz, #5 is University of Iowa, #4 is University of Arizona (another shocker not really!), #3 is West Virginia University, and #2 is University of Wisconsin. But apparently no university parties as hard as Penn. Does that surprise you? Were not so sure how this particular magazine arrived at these rankings and if theres any actual data involved in their calculations or if its just based on subjective opinion but were curious to hear where you stand on the question of whether or not Penn really is a big party school. So let us know your thoughts by posting a Comment below. We look forward to hearing from you!

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Abortion The Morality Of Abortion - 1442 Words

One of the most frequently debated topics in bioethics is the morality of abortion, or the ending of a pregnancy without physically giving birth to an infant. Often times abortions are categorized into either spontaneous, a natural miscarriage; induced or intentional, which is premeditated and for any reason; or therapeutic, which albeit intentional, its sole purpose is to save the mother’s life. It seems however that moral conflicts on issue mainly arise when discussing induced abortions. In general, people universally agree it is morally wrong to kill an innocent person and in some people’s eyes induced abortions are the intentional killings of innocent persons, thus making them immoral. However not all individuals view fetuses as persons and consequentially argue it is not morally wrong to kill them. From these two notions stems three basic views, or platforms, individuals use as the backbone for their argument when making their case for the right or wrongness of abo rtion. Conservatives believe under no circumstance is it morally acceptable to perform an abortion. Liberals believe abortions are permissible at any time during pregnancy and for any reason. Lastly, moderates stand behind the notion that abortions are morally permissible in some situations but not all. Over time hundreds of philosophers have attempted to justify their view point with sound theories; three of which, Don Marquis, Michael Tooley and Judith Thomson, seem to have done so successfully. On theShow MoreRelatedAbortion And The Morality Of It921 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion and the morality of it has been a hot topic for years in the United States although it has been carried out for centuries in different cultures. Abortion is a medical procedure deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Abortions usually happen within the first 28 weeks of pregnancy and are considered an outpatient procedure. The first abortion laws were passed by Britain in 1803 and by 1880 most abortions i n the U.S. were illegal, except for those that were performed to save the life of a womanRead MoreMorality of Abortion1478 Words   |  6 PagesMorality of Abortion For the past couple of decades, the issue of abortion has been the most heated topic debated in the United States. When considering this topic, one must look at three things: ethics, emotions and the law; for all of these are important to this issue. Like any debate, there are two sides to this issue: pro-choice and pro-life. The people who are pro- abortion say that the mother is the ultimate person to decide to abort a pregnancy and that the government should not get involvedRead MoreIs The Morality Of Abortions?956 Words   |  4 PagesThe topic I choose to discuss is the morality of abortions. Merriam-Webster defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. Abortion has been a very controversial matter and the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of induced abortion. Some individuals are pro life and completely against it; they feel that abortion is immoral i s because it is the intentional killing of a human beingRead MoreThe Morality Of The Abortion Of A Fetus1948 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction: In this essay, the morality of the abortion of a fetus will be discussed in a drama involving a married couple named Deb and Derek (Smolkin, Bourgeois Findler, 2010).  For clarification purposes, we must first define the topic of this discussion; abortion is defined as the act in which a female voluntarily terminates her pregnancy where this act is legally permitted (Warren, 1973). Deb who is 16 weeks pregnant discovers that the fetus she is carrying will most likely be born mentallyRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay1413 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a major factor in the questionRead MoreA Debate On The Morality Of Abortion1575 Words   |  7 Pagesthat makes sense to me and that has moral significance is clearly our ability to love, to put the needs of others before ourselves, and do it regardless of the personnel cost. Without this ability we would not even be having a debate on the morality of abortion. Thus I am arguing that the human ability to love and have a moral compass is what gives us our inherent value. Some might object that I added the potential clause to the sentence â€Å"To be human is to be at once a member of the species Homo sapiensRead MoreThe Legality And Morality Of Abortion1103 Words   |  5 Pages The legality and morality of abortion is a huge topic in today’s society. Are there ever times when it is justified? Who has a say in the matter of whether or not it is justified? How does one know how to justify abortion? â€Å"Given a particular pregnancy, who should decide whether or not it ought to be terminated?† (Jaggar, 218) People argue over whether or not the unborn child has the right to life or does the woman have the right to her own body. Other party’s possibly involved are the stateRead More The Morality of Abortions Essay2719 Words   |  11 PagesThe Morality of Abortions Abortion’s legalization through Supreme Court’s Roe v. Wade, has allowed for one in three pregnancies to end in abortion. This means that 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States each year (Flanders 3). It ranks among the most complex and controversial issues, arousing heated legal, political, and ethical debates. The modern debate over abortion is a conflict of competing moral ideas and of fundamental human rights: to life, to privacy, to control overRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay examples1494 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion Abortion is the termination of a foetus whilst in the womb and is a constantly argued issue in todays society. Whether abortion is moral or immoral depends on many topics and on one particular topic; when does life start? In 1976 the Abortion act was made active in England and Wales. This allowed the termination of a foetus aged up to 28 weeks, and for the first time women had the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. However limitationsRead MoreMorality Of Abortion s Argument1207 Words   |  5 Pages Morality of Abortion Counter-Argument Kyle Pedigo PHI 103: Informal Logic Micheal Pelt August 29, 2015 â€Æ' Morality of Abortion This paper is written to present a counter argument. This is a counter argument to a debate that has been around for a very long time and likely will not go away any time soon. The topic I will be covering is: Does the stage of pregnancy affect the morality of abortion? In my opinion I have to say no. But, my opinion is not the subject of this paper. My original argument

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Teen Pregnancy Is A Global Problem Essay - 1657 Words

Literature Review Teen pregnancy is a global problem, it affects all demographics, but certain populations are at greater risk. Statics show that African-American and Hispanic teenage women in the Unites States have the highest birthrates. Inconsistent research of young African American women is at a greater risk of becoming teenage mothers; the culture may contribute to this trend, though the complex relationships (Furstenberg, 1992; Geronimus, 2003; Sullivan, 1993). According to Trussell (1988), one out of every 10 women aged 15-19 becomes pregnant each year in the United States. Of these pregnancies, five out of every six is unintended, 92 percent of those conceived are premarital, and half of those conceived in marriage (Trussell, 1988). Researching teen pregnancy various studies suggests that teen pregnancy rates are determined by their sexual behaviors, with includes rates of sexual intercourse and condom and contraceptive use (Santelli, Orr, Lindberg, Diaz 2009). Consequences of early childbearing have examined the impact of premature parenthood on the economic, marital, and childbearing careers of young mothers (Gortzak-Uzan, Hallak, Press, Katz, M., Shoham-Vardi (2001). Teenage parents face many life challenges, for example, trying complete high school, finding and paying for quality child care, developing parenting skills, coping with s being a single parent, maintaining a relationship with the father of the child, attending college, securing safe andShow MoreRelatedThe Continued Increase in the Global Poplulation846 Words   |  3 PagesThe global population is increasing exponentially. Enormous quantities of children are born each day and a small percentage is born into an adequate household. This drastically affects the global economy, society and the environment. As Margaret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood, said â€Å"more children from the fit, less from the unfit† (Sanger). Population control needs to be implemented th rough the enforcement of sexual education and greater access to contraceptives in order to decrease the numberRead MoreEffects Of Social Media On Teen Pregnancy Essay1400 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of Social Media on Teen Pregnancy Does social media impact teenagers in a positive or negative manner? With the advent of social media, it is unclear what to expect from it and the influence it brings to the society. According to various research studies in the field of online social networks, it has been revealed that these sites are impacting the lives of the youth greatly. When using sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and many others, there are both positive and negative effectsRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy and the Media Essay1531 Words   |  7 PagesThere is a great debate on whether or not mass media has an influence on teenage pregnancy. A study done by the RAND Corporation shows that teens are twice as likely to have sex or engage in sexual acts if they see similar sexual behavior in the media. Many objects in the media that involve sex target teens. Reality TV shows and teen dramas often portray the cool kids as the ones who are having sex (Chandra).Today’s teens are highly influenced by what t hey see in the media and this can change theirRead MoreThe Popularity Of Teen Pregnancy1660 Words   |  7 PagesThe popularity of teen’s pregnancy worldwide has become a major concern in recent years. It is viewed as a global crisis as the increasing number of teenage girls bearing children outside of marriage or before graduating high school continue to rise. There are many reasons to scale down the teen pregnancy rate, and the financial costs of teens giving birth are important. After highly dropping for almost a decade-and-a-half, United States’ teen birth rate percentages began edging skyward in recentRead MoreThe Controversy Regarding Teenage Pregnancy: The Essential Role of Education and Good Parenting1270 Words   |  5 Pagespresently much controversy regarding teenage pregnancy and the probability of its chances being reduced by education and good parenting. The surrounding environment plays an essential role when considering teenage pregnancy and it is thu s very important for teenagers to be provided with proper education and a positive environment in order for them to be able to understand the difference between right and wrong. One of the most important things about teen pregnancy is that society as a whole needs to getRead MoreA New Zealand Health Issue : Teen Pregnancies1404 Words   |  6 PagesAnalyse a New Zealand health issue: Teen Pregnancies A health issue is something that affects the well-being of groups or populations in a way that causes (public) concern. In this report I will be discussing why teenage pregnancy is a health issue in New Zealand and how it links to all the determinants of health which are influenced from teen pregnancy and parenthood. I am going to be discussing three determinants of health, these being; cultural, economic and social determinants of health. IRead MoreToo Many Unwanted Pregnancies in America649 Words   |  3 Pages In America there has been an increasingly higher rate of Teen pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy. Due to this abortion has been increasing at an alarming rate as well. For many teenagers who would be unable to afford the proper care for a newborn child it would seem best for them to terminate the pregnancy. However, isn’t murder consider taking the life from another living thing or human being. Many believe it to be a right of Americans and that since the mother would be the one carrying the childRead MoreSociety Divided By Sexual Education Program Essay1698 Words   |  7 Pagescountry; the civil society was enraged at the prospect of the approval of law 61, which according to sociologist Dr. Olmedo Garcia, sought to decrease the rate of teenage pregnancies, STDs, and to defend a somewhat progressive look on polemic matters as gender identity and gender roles (Garcia). However, adolescent pregnancies and STDs have become a major social issue, since the figures increase every year. In order to help the country, UNFPA (the United Nations Fund for Population Activities) askedRead MoreAmerican Culture And The Influence Of Music1397 Words   |  6 Pagesaudience’s acceptance of music containing lyrics that encourages all kinds of indecorous behavior. Although, Beyoncà © is known for being the third most honored women in Grammy Award history and a global symbol of female empowerment, her song â€Å"Partition† should be avoided because it lacks emotion, encourages teen pregnancy, and has lyrics crowded with unintelligible pop-culture references. The first reason to avoid Beyoncà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s song â€Å"Partition† is the lack of emotion. The music, like any art form, is a culturalRead MoreSex Ed in Middle School1723 Words   |  7 Pagesabout sex and how to be safe about it. Middle school is the time puberty starts for most children, and hormones start to influence the way children are changing, so that most teenagers are concerned to have sex because of curiosity and emotional problems when they are having new feelings. According to Steven Dowshen, specializes in Pediatric Endocrinology, puberty generally begins earlier for girls between 8 and 13 years of age, or after boys turns 9 or 10 with telltale signs such as, hair growth

A Computer Virus Is a Computer Program That Can Copy Itself free essay sample

Big city is where you can see many vehicles,many skyscrapers, many peple with a hurry pace of life. That place can fascinate us very much due to its light and luxury. Nowadays, more and more pople want to live there because they see many advantages. Indeed, in a big city, people can have the best chances to work as well as can enjoy the best service and entertaiment. In a big city, people can take the chaces to study and work best. There are many good University for u to choose in a big city. There you can express your ability to study what you like. Moreover, when you graduate, you also find it easier to find chances to et a good Job with good salary, that is quite difficult in small cities or countrysides; because there concentrates many big companies and groups. Hence, many graduate students choose big cities to live and work. In short, it is where you can take advantages f yourself. In addition, in a big city you can enjoy the best service and entertainment. Because there are many rich people here, they can invest much money to get the best for them. Lives in a big city are quite luxurius but you dont have to be worried when you are sick or suffer a disease because there you can find good doctors for you, as long s you have mulch money. Whats more, in a big city you can enjoy new entertainment such as new games or luxury games. Many people can argue that living in a big city makes them tired with noise and dash. They like the slow pace of life in a countryside. But I think that you can live there for a long Ime because the young always like to enjoy new things and want to have much money, which is very difficult to do in a countryside. However, when you get older, especially when you retire, a countryside WII the best choice to live. In summary, living in a big city has many advantages. However, you have to try your best to overcome all difficulties such as hard competition in workplace or polluted environment. A Computer Virus Is a Computer Program That Can Copy Itself By bhasky A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself[l] and infect a computer. The term virus is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. [2][3] The term computer virus is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, troJans, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware, crimeware, and other malicious and unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but has a hidden agenda. Worms and Trojans, like viruses, may cause harm to either a computer systems hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when they are executed. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious or go unnoticed. Infection strategies In order to replicate itself, a virus must be permitted to execute code and write to memory. For this reason, many viruses attach themselves to executable files that may be part of legitimate programs. If a user attempts to launch an infected program, the virus code may be executed simultaneously. Viruses can be divided into two types based on their behavior when they are executed. Nonresident viruses immediately search for other hosts that can be infected, infect those targets, and finally transfer control to the application program they infected. Resident viruses do not search for hosts when they are started. Instead, a resident virus loads itself into memory on execution and transfers control to the host program. The virus stays active in the background and infects new hosts when those files are accessed by other programs or the operating system itself. [edit] Nonresident viruses Nonresident viruses can be thought of as consisting of a finder module and a replication module. The finder module is responsible for finding new files to infect. module to infect that file. [edit] Resident viruses Resident viruses contain a replication module that is similar to the one that is employed by nonresident viruses. This module, however, is not called by a finder module. The virus loads the replication module into memory when it is executed instead and ensures that this module is executed each time the operating system is called to perform a certain operation. The replication module can be called, for example, each time the operating system executes a file. In this case the virus infects every suitable program that is executed on the computer. Resident viruses are sometimes subdivided into a category of fast infectors and a category of slow infectors. Fast infectors are designed to infect as many files as possible. A fast infector, for instance, can infect every potential host file that is accessed. This poses a special problem when using anti-virus software, since a virus scanner will access every potential host file on a computer when it performs a system-wide scan. If the virus scanner fails to notice that such a virus is present in memory the virus can piggy-back on the virus scanner and in this way infect all files that are scanned. Fast infectors rely on their fast infection rate to spread. The disadvantage of this method is that infecting many files may make detection more likely, because the virus ay slow down a computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be noticed by anti-virus software. Slow infectors, on the other hand, are designed to infect hosts infrequently. Some slow infectors, for instance, only infect files when they are copied. Slow infectors are designed to avoid detection by limiting their actions: they are less likely to slow down a computer noticeably and will, at most, infrequently trigger anti- virus software that detects suspicious behavior by programs. The slow infector approach, however, does not seem very successful. Stealth Some viruses try to trick antivirus software by intercepting its requests to the perating system. A virus can hide itself by intercepting the antivirus softwares request to read the file and passing the request to the virus, instead of the OS. The virus can then return an uninfected version of the file to the antivirus software, so that it seems that the file is clean. Modern antivirus software employs various techniques to counter stealth mechanisms of viruses. The only completely reliable method to avoid stealth is to boot from a medium that is known to be clean Spyware is a type of malware that is installed on computers and collects little bits nformation at a time about users without their knowledge. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user, and can be difficult to detect. Typically, spyware is secretly installed on the users personal computer. Sometimes, however, spywares such as keyloggers are installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer on purpose in order to secretly monitor other users. While the term functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habits and ites that have been visited, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software and redirecting Web browser activity. Spyware is known to change computer settings, resulting in slow connection speeds, different home pages, and/or loss of Internet or functionality of other programs. In an attempt to increase the understanding of spyware, a more formal classification of its included software types is captured under the term privacy- invasive software. In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices for computers, especially those running Microsoft Windows. A number of Jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a users computer. The US Federal Trade Commission has placed on the Internet a page of advice to consumers about how to lower the risk of spyware infection, including a list of dos and donts. Routes of infection [pic] Malicious websites attempt to install spyware on readers computers. Spyware does not directly spread in the manner of a computer virus or worm: generally, an infected system does not attempt to transmit the infection to other computers. Instead, spyware gets on a system through deception of the user or through exploitation of software vulnerabilities. Most spyware is installed without users knowledge. Since they tend not to install software if they know that it will disrupt their working environment and compromise their privacy, spyware deceives users, either by piggybacking on a piece of desirable software such as Kazaa, or by tricking them into nstalling it (the Trojan horse method). Some rogue spyware programs masquerade as security software. The distributor of spyware usually presents the program as a useful utility†for instance as a Web accelerator or as a helpful software agent. Users download and install the software without immediately suspecting that it could cause harm. For example, Bonzi Buddy, a program bundled with and targeted at children, claims that: He will explore the Internet with you as your very own friend and sidekick! He can talk, walk, Joke, browse, search, e-mail, and download like no other friend youve ever had! He even has the ability to compare prices on the products you love and help you save money! Best of all, hes Spyware can also come bundled with other software. The user downloads a program and installs it, and the installer additionally installs the spyware. Although the desirable software itself may do no harm, the bundled spyware does. In some cases, spyware authors have paid shareware authors to bundle spyware with their software. In other cases, spyware authors have repackaged desirable freeware with installers that slipstream spyware. Some spyware authors infect a system through security holes in the Web he spyware author, the page contains code which attacks the browser and forces the download and installation of spyware. The spyware author would also have some extensive knowledge of commercially-available anti-virus and firewall software. This has become known as a drive-by download, which leaves the user a hapless bystander to the attack. Common browser exploits target security vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer and in the Sun Microsystems Java runtime. The installation of spyware frequently involves Internet Explorer. Its popularity and history of security issues have made it the most frequent target. Its deep integration with the Windows environment and scriptability make it an obvious point of attack into Windows. Internet Explorer also serves as a point of attachment for spyware in the form of Browser Helper Objects, which modify the browsers behavior to add toolbars or to redirect traffic. In a few cases, a worm or virus has delivered a spyware payload. Some attackers used the Spybot worm to install spyware that put pornographic pop- ups on the infected systems screen. 11] By directing traffic to ads set up to channel funds to the spyware authors, they profit personally. Examples of spyware CoolWebSearch, a group of programs, takes advantage of Internet Explorer vulnerabilities. The package directs traffic to advertisements on Web sites including coolwebsearch. com. It displays pop-up ads, rewrites search engine results, and alters the infected computers hosts file to direct DNS lookups to the se sites. [30] Internet Optimizer, also known as DyFuCa, redirects Internet Explorer error pages to advertising. When users follow a broken link or enter an erroneous URL, they see a page of advertisements. However, because password-protected Web sites (HTTP Basic uthentication) use the same mechanism as HTTP errors, Internet Optimizer makes it impossible for the user to access password-protected sites. [31] HuntBar, aka WinTools or Adware. Websearch, was installed by an ActiveX drive-by download at affiliate Web sites, or by advertisements displayed by other spyware programs†an example of how spyware can install more spyware. These programs add toolbars to E, track aggregate browsing behavior, redirect affiliate references, and display advertisements Computer worm A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send opies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. This is due to the poor security the computers infected have. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted compute Worms with good intent attempts to create useful worms. The Nachi family of worms, for example, tried to download and install patches from Microsofts website to fix vulnerabilities in the ost system by exploiting those same vulnerabilities. In practice, although this may have made these systems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic, rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, and did its work without the consent of the computers owner or user. Some worms, such as XSS worms, have been written for research to determine the factors of how worms spread, such as social activity and change in user behavior, while other worms are little more than a prank, such as one that sends the popular image macro of an owl with the phrase O RLY? to a print queue in the infected computer. Most security experts regard all worms as malware, whatever their payload or their writers intentions. [edit] Protecting against dangerous computer worms Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. All vendors supply regular security updates[6] (see Patch Tuesday), and if these are installed to a machine then the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vendor acknowledges a vulnerability, but has yet to release a security update to patch it, a zero day exploit is possible. However, these are relatively rare. Users need to be wary f opening unexpected and should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOIJ worm, and with the increased growth and efficiency of phishing attacks, it remains possible to trick the end-user into running a malicious code. Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days. The use of a firewall is also recommended. In the April-June, 2008, issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, computer scientists describe a potential new way to combat internet worms. The researchers discovered how to contain the kind of worm that scans the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect. They found that the key is for software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network sends out. When a machine starts sending out too many scans, it is a sign that it has been infected, allowing administrators to take it off line and check it for viruses A Trojan horse (sometimes shortened to troJan[n 1]), is non-self-replicating malware that appears to perform a desirable function for the user but instead facilitates unauthorized access to the users computer system. The term is derived from the Trojan Horse story in Greek mythology. Purpose and operation Trojan horses are designed to allow a hacker remote access to a target computer system. Once a Trojan horse has been installed on a target computer system, it is possible for a hacker to access it remotely and perform various operations. The operations that a hacker can perform are limited by user privileges on the target computer system and the design of the Trojan horse. Operations that could be as part of a botnet (i. e. o perform spamming or to perform Distributed Denial-of- service (DDoS) attacks) Data theft (e. . passwords, credit card information, etc. ) Installation of software (including other malware) Downloading or uploading of files Modification or deletion of files Keystroke logging Viewing the users screen Wasting computer storage space Trojan horses require interaction with a hacker to fulfill their purpose, though the hacker need not be the individual responsible for distributing the Trojan horse. In fact, it is possible for hackers to scan computers on a network using a port scanner in the hope of finding one with a Trojan horse installed, that the hacker can then use to ontrol the target computer. [l] A troJan differs from a virus in that only a file specifically designed to carry it can do so. [edit] Installation and distribution Trojan horses can be installed through the following methods: Software downloads (i. e. a Trojan horse included as part of a software application downloaded from a file sharing network) Websites containing executable content (i. . a Trojan horse in the form of an ActiveX control) Email attachments Application exploits (i. e. flaws in a web browser, media player, messaging client, r other software that can be exploited to allow installation of a Trojan horse) Also, there have been reports of compilers that are themselves Trojan horses. [citation needed] While compiling code to executable form, they include code that causes the output executable to b ecome a Trojan horse. edit] Removal Antivirus software is designed to detect and delete Trojan horses, as well as preventing them from ever being installed. Although it is possible to remove a Trojan horse manually, it requires a full understanding of how that particular Trojan horse operates. In addition, if a Trojan horse has possibly been used by a hacker to access computer system, it will be difficult to know what damage has been done and what other problems have been introduced. In situations where the security of the computer system is critical, it is advisable to simply erase all data from the hard disk and reinstall the operating system and required software. [edit] Current use Due to the growing popularity of botnets among hackers, Trojan horses are becoming more common. According to a survey conducted by BitDefender from January to June 2009, Trojan-type malware is on the rise, accounting for 83-percent of the global malware detected in the wild